Organic And Biological Compounds Essay, Research Paper
Chapter 13 Organic and Biological Compounds
I.Simple Organic Compounds
A. Organic Compounds
1.Most compounds that contain the element carbon are organic
Ie: More than 90% of all compounds are organic compounds.
2.The word organic comes from the word organism.
Ie: At one time, scientists assumed that only living organisms could produce organic compounds.
B. Hydrocarbons
1.The chemical formula to methane is CH4.
Ie: Found in natural gas used by most people.
2.Hydrocarbons containing only single-bounded carbon atoms are called saturated hydrocarbons.
Ie: Is joined by single covalent bonds.
3.Hydrocarbons, such as ethane and ethyne, that contain at least one double or triple bond between carbon atoms are called unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Ie: Fats and oils are classified as unsaturated hydrocarbons.
C. Isomers
1.Another hydrocarbon also has the same chemical formula as butane.
Ie: The chemical formula for butane is C4H10.
2.Isomers are compounds that have identical formulas but different molecular structures and shapes.
Ie: There are thousands of isomers in hydrocarbons.
II.Other Organic Compounds
A. Aromatic Compounds
1.An aromatic compound is a compound that contains the benzene ring structure.
Ie: The chemical formula for benzene is C6H6.
2.Knowing the structure of benzene can help you picture hundreds of different aromatic organic compounds.
Ie: One example is naphthalene.
B. Substituted Hydrocarbons
1.A substituted hydrocarbon has one or more of its hydrogen atoms replaced by atoms of other elements.
Ie: A compound used in dry cleaning, tetrachloroethene, is a substituted hydrocarbon.
2.The prefix tetra means “four,” and chloro- refers to chlorine.
Ie: Tetrachloroethene
3.An alcohol is formed when -OH groups replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon.
Ie: Alcohol
III.Alternative Sources of Energy
A. Why Not New Fuels?
1.Biomass refers to all animal and plant material, both dead and alive.
Ie: Wood, leaves, animal and human wastes, and food are all biomass.
Biogas is mainly methane, just like natural gas.
Physcial Science, Merrill

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