Реферат


The Age Of Napolean Essay, Research Paper
The Age of Napolean
During the period of time when there was continuing war with Great
Britain, Austria, and Sardinia, France needed a new military leader. These
wars opened up opportunity for a reflexive unknown general named
Napoleon Bonaparte. At the age of 26 this general suppressed the uprising
in Paris that attempted to prevent the establishment of the directory. The
people of France chose Napoleon because they needed stability. Napoleon
was born in 11769 on the French island of Corsica. He attended military
school in France and he graduated as an artillery officer. Napoleon might
have stayed there if the revolution had not given him the chance to rise to the
rank of general.
Napoleon was not that tall , he was five foot – two inch. He required
only two or three hours of sleep a night. He combined overwhelming
ambition with a vain and domineering personality. Because of these traits,
he proved to be a great organizer and administrator in both political and
military affairs. Besides this, he was a military genius.
Napoleon was one of the best generals of all time. Because of the
dominant role he played in 2 1796, the wars the French fought from then
until 1815 are generally know as “The Napoleonic Ages”. One of the things
that Napolean was great at was the ability to move his troops and to miss
forces at critical points on the battlefield. This way of fighting gave Napoleon
an advantage over his opponents.
In Italy, Naopoleon quickly showed his ablity. He took the small,
week, and poorly equiped french army and in a couple of weaks, they were
so organized and inspired it that he forced the Sardinians Auststrians twice.
In 31797, he forced them to sign a humiliating peace treaty that gave France
control of all northern Italy.
Napoleon became the popular hero of his time, but his popularity
could not change the facts. France forced a dangerous situation. The British
had organized a second coalition against France that included Austria and
Russia. These forces drove the French armies out of Italy and French controle
over the other conquered states slipped.
In 1799,4three of the dictators resigned and the other two were
arrested, leaving the way open for Napoleon. Napoleon’s troops forced most
of the legislative members to leave. These people that did not leave turned the
government over to Napoleon and his fellow plotters. A seizure of power by
force is called “Coup De’Tat” meaning ” stroke of state.” Napoleon said “I
found the creon of France lying on the ground, and I picked it up with a
sword.” This made him director of France. From 17995 to 1814 he infleunced
events in France and the rest of Europe to such a great extent that this period
is know as the Napoleonic Era, or the Age of Napoleon.
The People in France accepted Napoleon’s dictatorship, some of the
people were not sure of Napoleon but they wanted stability . Other people
were afraid to protest because they did not want to get arrested. Napoleon
made life easier for people. He respected the decleration of the right of man.
He assured the peasants that the land that they have now will reamain theirs.
Napoleon gave himself unlimited power. Executive bracnch, made up
of three consuls was called the consulate. Napoleon took the name first
consul. As first cosul, Napoleon commanded the army and navy, he had right
to appoint and dismiss all oficial and propose all new laws.
Napoleon submitted the constitution of his new government to the
people for a vote, a plebiscite. We know Napoleon for his military services,
but his work on the government had more importance and a longer lasting
affect. Many other governments in Europe and elsewhere used the system
that Napoleon used. It was called the Napoleonic Code.
Napoleon finally destroyed the second coalation against France. In
1799,6 Russia destroyed the coalation. By 1801, Austria asked France for
peace. In 1802 Great Britain had signed a peace treaty with France. Napolean
would keep his promisess to the French people. Peace was won by, vitory
from war, firm and steady government, and an economic prosperity.
In France, Napoleon wanted to increase his power by making it
permanent and hereditory. The French people voted to declare France an
empire. The first consul, Napoleon Bonapart, became Emperor Napoleopn
1’st. Napoleon planned to defeat the British navy and invade Great Britain.
Unfourtanitly for Napoleon, in 1805, a British fleet led by Admiral Horatio
Nelson defeated Napoleon and his navy. Nelson was killed in the battle, but
not before he defeated the French and spanish fleet. Napoleon also
surrendered in the land battle. When Napoleon was being crowned emperer
by the Pope, Napoleon took the crown from the Pope and crowned himself
because he wanted everyone to know that no one is higher than him in
power. He was the mightiest one, not even the Pope was higher than him.
By 1908, 7Napolean completely dominated Europe. He forced Prussia
and Austria to sign a humiliating peace treaty. He also ruled Europe but the
enimies were getting stronger. The generals that Napoleon defeated were
using his tacktics and started to get stronger. Nationalism strenghtened
Napoleons opponents.
The Peninsula Camaign war lasted from 18088 to 1814. Napoleon still
kept power of Spain buthis military was weeknd. In 1814, the British took
over Spain, this is part of Napoleons downfall. When Napoleon was fighting
Russia they practice a scorched earth poicy which gave Napoleon no land
which they can use. Everyone on Europe broke their alliance with Napoleon.
Napoleon tried his old stratigy but it did not work. Napoleon was defeated.
During the hundred days Napoleon plotted his return. He eventually
ruled France, but once again was greedy and wanted more land so he went to
battle with the British and once again was defeated. The British sent
Napoleon to live under constant guard on the lonly dismal island of St. Hellen
in the south Atlantic ocean, there, Napoleon died in 1821.
As the years went by, Napoleons legend grew but people forgot his
failures and they only remebered his victories and how good of an emperer he
was. The British allowed France to take his body to paris where he lyes to
this day under the dome of Inivalides, the magnificent home for old soldiers
that Louis XIV had built.

Приложенные файлы


Добавить комментарий