1. Read the text and mark the sentences as true, false or doesn't say.
1. Non-Western families were only nuclear.
2. All kinds of societies have produced several extended family traditions. .
3. The three major kinds of societies are known as patrilineal, matrilineal, and bilateral
4. All kinds of societies had the same origin.
5. India, China, and various African countries had the patrilineal kind of society.
6. In cultures with a bilateral kinship system, such as that of the Inuit (Eskimos), a couple
might join only the husband's father's family.
7. Forms of marriage and responsibilities have also differed across cultures and traditions.
8. A child marriage was supposed to be the most popular type.
9. Not many cultures permitted divorce and remarriage long before Western countries legalized such practices.
10 It was possible to have arranged marriages in China and India.
Non-Western families.Traditionally, non-Western societies have attached less importance to the nuclear family than to the larger family network. People in this network, which is often called the lineage, clan, or tribe, trace their descent to a common ancestor. In many parts of the world, kinship ties determine whom one can and cannot marry and where one lives after marriage. Different kinds of societies have produced different extended family traditions.
three major kinds of societies are known as patrilineal, matrilineal, and bilateral kinship.
In patrilineal societies (India, China, and various African countries), husband and wife
commonly reside with the husband's father and his kin after marriage. In matrilineal, such
as the Navajo and the Pueblo of the American Southwest, a husband joins his wife's mother's household. Within matrilineal societies, a mother's older brother often has responsibility for disciplining children and offering advice about marriage. In cultures with a bilateral kinship system, such as that of the Inuit (Eskimos), a couple might join either the husband's father's family or the wife's mother's family, or form an independent household. Forms of marriage have also differed across cultures. Many societies, such as those of China and India, also practiced arranged marriages and child marriage (marriage at or before puberty). Numerous non-western cultures permitted divorce and remarriage long before Western countries legalized such practices. As societies allow more personal
choice, child marriage, arranged marriages, polygyny, and concubinage have become less
2. For questions 1-15, read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best
fits each space.
Colour and Communication
Colour, although only a small 0) part of our communication system, plays a large role. Whether you are designing Web 1) ..., buying clothes or decorating your kitchen, your 2) ... of colours sends a definite message to other people, and they will respond to it in a 3) ... way. Every colour has a different 4) on people, and the practice of correct colour selection is a delicate 5) ... To further complicate matters, the effects of colours change, as times and fashions change. Certain colours also mean different things in different cultures. For example, in the United States, blue is thought to be a relaxing colour. Tests reveal that the colour blue 6) ... blood pressure, calms viewers and gives them a sense of 7) ... In Middle Eastern countries, however, blue is believed to be a protective colour and people 8) ... their front doors blue to ward off. 9) ... spirits. Colour communication is an essential part of how we see the world. In western societies, we know that a jester is comical and playful because he 10) ... In bright red, green, blue and yellow. The colour black, however, is 11) ... with boredom or evil, and white with purity and light. The colour orange is friendly, relaxing and peaceful, whereas 12) ... yellow is a happy colour. Research. 13) ... That all human beings make a subconscious judgments about a person or item within the first 90 seconds of 14) ... it, and 62% to 90% of that assessment is 15) ... on colour alone.
0 A. portion B. part C. piece. D. factor.1 A. covers B. papers C. pages D. sheets
2 A. choice B. option C. decision D. pick
3 A. separate B. certain C. clear D. obvious
4 A. idea B. sense C. force D. effect5 A. method B. talent C. art D. ability6 A. lowers B. drops C. sinks D. lessens
7 A. caution B. security C. guarantee D. defence8 A. shade B. decorate C. coat D. paint
9 A. mean B. evil C. cruel D. wicked
10 A. outfits B. clothes C. dresses D. wears
11 A. associated B. matched C. joined D. grouped
12 A. strong B. powerful C. loud D. bright
13 A. exhibits B. displays C. shows D. uncovers
14 A. viewing B. seeing C. watching D. looking
15 A. established B . constructed C. based D. balanced
3. Word Formation
The secret of being happy
I've spent years studying happiness and one of the most 1) SIGNIFY
conclusions is that there is hardly any connection between the circumstances of people's
lives and how happy they are.
We all know people who have a 2) ... easy life, yet are RELATE
always 3) ... , and others who have suffered great hardships. MISERY
but remain happy. The first secret is gratitude. 4) ... people. GRATEFUL
can't be happy. We think that being unhappy leads people to complain. It is truer to say
that finding cause is more 5) VALUE
and it leads to unhappiness. The second secret is a 6) ... CARE
realization that happiness is a by-product of 7) ... people. ACT
that gives the life meaning.
4. Key Word Transformation
1. "Stop fighting or I'll take you to the headmaster", the teacher said to them.
threatened The teacher to the headmaster if they didn't stop fighting.
2. "I have a headache", Mum said.
complained. Mum a headache.
3. "You should exercise regularly", the doctor said to him.
Advised The doctor regularly.4. "No, I didn't read your diary", Chris said.
denied. Chris my diary.5. "Can I see the manager?" he said.
whether He asked the manager.
6. "Don't forget to pay the bills", she said to Tom.
reminded. She the bills.7. "Let's bake the cake at the weekend", she said.
suggested. She at the weekend.8. "Stand up!" the general said to the soldier.
ordered. The general stand up.
9. "Yes, I'll drive you home", he said.
agreed. He me home.
10. "Don't touch those wires!" she said.
warned. She the wires.